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There were midwives in those days, and birth stools or were in use Exod. The only surgical operation mentioned is circumcision, performed by the priest as a ritual procedure Gen. Honour a physician with the honour due to him for the uses for the Lord hath created him," which ye may have of him is from a book which, strangely enough, was not included in the " The Wisdom of Jesus, the son of Sirach, or, EcclesiastiCanon, :.

He that sinneth before his Maker, let him fall the last verse, " is of the hand the physician into capable of more than one interpretation.

In spite of this disappointing absence of references to medicine surgery, the Bible is a mine of information on personal and social hygiene, and might even be regarded as the first textbook The thirteenth and fourteenth chapters of of public health. Leviticus contain explicit instructions to be observed by the priest in cases of leprosy. The isolation of the patient, the washing or burning of infected clothing, and the disinfection of houses, involving, if necessary, complete destruction, are all described in detail.

There appears to be little doubt that " " with which the Lord smote the Philistines were emerods the. This is probably the plague. And thou shalt have a paddle upon thy weapon and it shall be, when thou wilt ease thyself abroad, thou shalt dig therewith, and shalt turn back and cover that which cometh " from thee Deut.

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Physical purity was complementary to moral purity and cleanliness was literally next to godliness. For the first time in history the individual was subordinated to the community. Personal comfort or convenience must be sacrificed if that is necessary for the good of the greater number.

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A social conscience had awakened, and the Jews were the pioneers of public health. Not only in the Bible but also in the Talmud 3 fifth century A. The Talmud is mainly a book of regulations and laws, but it contains some details regarding Jewish medicine which are not to be found in the Old Testament. Human anatomy is described in considerable detail. Especially interesting is the reference to the bone Luz, which, situated in some ill-defined part of the vertebral column, was the permanent nucleus of the 4 This belief held throughout body which persisted after death.

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The Talmud refers to blood-letting, cupping, and the use of first. Zur Hygiene der alten Israeliten," Janus, , vol. A study of ancient Hebrew literature, 1 therefore, leads us to the conclusion that although no great physician appeared among the Jews, nor indeed any medical men at all, they did nevertheless contribute very materially to the progress of medical science by promoting a social conscience among the people, and by instituting valuable measures for the prevention of epidemic disease and the promotion of the health of the community.

No account of the first known medical men would be complete without some reference to the early medical practice of the East. Sanskrit document, the Rig- Veda 3 about B. Gharaka 4 lived at the beginning of the Christian era, and Susruta 6 about the fifth century A.


The works of the latter He wrote on many subjects on are the more noteworthy. Sir B. Muthu, Hindu Medicine," Proc. India, ; S. Lieiard, " La Doctrine humorale des Hindous et p. Works ofCharaka, trans. Kaviratna, Calcutta, Works of Susruta, trans. Kunja-Lal, Calcutta, Some of the general information is of great interest. One " He who knows only one branch of his art is of the remarks, like a bird with one wing," might well be pondered by the modern rich in drugs, specialist.

If he find poison he must remove it, and so save the army from death and destruction. His tent shall be near the king's tent, and there shall be a flag over his tent, so that the sick, poisoned, or wounded may find him quickly. It is not unlikely, though difficult to prove, that some of it was of Greek origin. Some, indeed, state that the Greeks drew much of their knowledge from the Hindus.

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This pioneer work in surgery is all the more remarkable because the knowledge of anatomy was so slight. Nevertheless the Hindus treated fractures with bamboo splints, and performed many operations including Caesarean section, the excision of tumours, and lithotomy. The performance of the last-mentioned operation was continued through the ages, and was undertaken by native trained surgeons until recent times.

Of peculiar interest and of very ancient date is the operation It was frequently of rhinoplasty, which originated in India. Withington, Medical History from the Earliest Tunes, , p. Muller, " Indische chirurgische Instrumente," Arch. Sarma, Hindu Medicine and its Antiquity," Ann. Hut , vol. Thus off. In medicine, the Chinese have shown originality and enterprise 2 although, to quote one of themselves, Dr. Chi Min Wong ". This Emperor of China was a man of great ability who not only devised methods of cultivation and of raising stock, but also, experimenting upon himself for many years, discovered a large number of This knowledge he set forth in Pen drugs and of poisons.

There were many subsequent editions of this book, which contains descriptions of over a thousand drugs, and is still in use in China. An English edition was published as recently as 1. Many of the drugs described are now obsolete, many are inert and useless, but some, such as opium, rhubarb, are in use to to mention only a few examples aconite, croton :.

Inorganic remedies such as iron, arsenic, and sulphur were also used. Scientific investigation of certain old Chinese drugs has been undertaken in recent years and has already this. At a slightly later date another noteworthy medical work was written by another Chinese emperor. It contains a statement which is often quoted in support of the contention that the Chinese discovered the circulation of the blood many centuries before Harvey.

The blood current flows The statement is continuously in a circle and never stops. As time went on, medicine in China gradually escaped from the control of magic and sorcery, and a theory was evolved which served as a basis for all subsequent practices. They were ebb and flow, male and female, life and death, sun and moon, heat and cold, strength and weakness, and so on.

Everything in the universe depended upon the adjustment of balance between the two forces, and naturally the principle was applied to health and Another doctrine was that of the five elements earth, disease. Kettle," Bull. Acupuncture consisted of the introduction of long fine needles at various.

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More than such points are described. Another therapeutic measure was the use of the " moxa," a small cone of combustible material which was applied at various It must have demanded considerable points and then ignited. Inoculation against smallpox was practised in China from ancient times dried crusts from a smallpox patient were insufflated into the nose.

Organotherapy was also practised in China, cretins being fed on sheep's sitis. His book on fevers is one of the classics of Chinese medical literature, and he was probably the first to treat certain fevers by cold baths. He also inaugurated a study of disease which was based upon observations of the patient rather than. Furthermore, he was revered on account of his noble aims and high ideals. HUA Tu A. His operations included and excision the of laparotomy spleen, but we know nothing of his methods, as none of his books have survived.

Hua Tu had a which after continued his and even in death, great reputation, recent times effigies of him might be seen in certain temples. He was one of those who made a profound study of the pulse, a method of examination which is very prominent in Chinese medicine. Two hundred varieties of pulse have been described, and it is believed that any internal disease may be diagnosed from the pulse alone. In the Emperor Kien Lung, a great patron of literature, conceived the idea of gathering together all the medical knowledge then available and publishing it as an encyclopaedia of medicine and surgery.

The work was undertaken by a committee of experts, and The Golden Mirror of Medicine, in forty volumes, was the result. It is still regarded as a standard work.

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Shortly after this time the pioneers of modern medicine began to reach China and to influence the traditional beliefs. The pioneer work at Canton was followed by the foundation of hospitals and medical schools in many other parts of China. Originally staffed mainly by British and American doctors, all those institutions have now come under the management of the Chinese, who are well fitted for the task, although the need for well-trained medical men is enormous. Although some of the.

Chinese tradition. Medicine in Japan followed the adopted Chinese lines until recent years, when the influence of Germany became prominent. Many of the leaders ofJapanese medicine were trained in Germany, and German was adopted as the language of scientific periodicals.


Japan has made some noteworthy contributions to progress, Among those who led the men as Kitasato p. The Hindus contributed materially to the art of surgery, while the Chinese were the originators of many discoveries in medicine which came to full fruition at later dates. BRIM, C. The Legacy of Egypt, Trans, of Herodotus, Loeb Library, 4 vols.

Ur of the Chaldees, 1 Almost everything that contributes to the interest and happiness of life originated in Greece. Philosophy and history, poetry and drama, sculpture and architecture, mathematics and astronomy, science and medicine all had their roots there, and indeed attained in some instances a level of excellence which has never since been equalled. Medicine, separated from magic, became inspired by the spirit of scientific inquiry which dominated all the work of Hippocrates, the Father of Medicine, whose leadership, un;.

Herodotus himself furnishes proof of this.